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Sleep is not a uniform state of being. Instead, sleep is composed of several different stages that can be differentiated from one another by the patterns of brain wave activity that occur during each stage. These changes in brain wave activity can be visualized using EEG and are distinguished from one another by both the frequency Lean On Me - Shady Nate - Bo Fessional 2 (File, Album) amplitude of brain waves [link].
Rapid eye movement REM sleep is characterized by darting movements of the eyes under closed eyelids. Brain waves during REM sleep appear very similar to brain waves during wakefulness. In contrast, non-REM NREM sleep is subdivided into four stages distinguished from each other and from wakefulness by characteristic patterns of brain waves.
In this section, we will discuss each of these stages of sleep and their associated patterns of brain wave activity. Brainwave activity changes dramatically across the different stages of sleep. The first stage of NREM sleep is known as stage 1 sleep.
Stage 1 sleep is a transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep, the period during which we drift off to sleep. During this time, there is a slowdown in both the rates of respiration and heartbeat.
In addition, stage 1 sleep involves a marked decrease in both overall muscle tension and core body temperature. In terms of brain wave activity, stage 1 sleep is associated with both alpha and theta waves. The early portion of stage 1 sleep produces alpha waveswhich are relatively low frequency 8—13Hzhigh amplitude patterns of electrical activity waves that become synchronized [link].
This pattern of brain wave activity resembles that of someone who is very relaxed, yet awake. As an individual continues through stage 1 sleep, there is an increase in theta wave activity. Theta waves are even lower frequency 4—7 Hzhigher amplitude brain waves than alpha waves.
It is relatively easy to wake someone from stage 1 sleep; in fact, people often report that they have not been asleep if they are awoken during stage 1 sleep. As we move into stage 2 sleepthe body goes REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings a state of deep relaxation. Theta waves still dominate the activity of the brain, but they are interrupted by brief bursts of activity known as sleep spindles [link].
In addition, the appearance of K-complexes is often associated with stage 2 sleep. A K-complex is a very high amplitude pattern of brain activity that may in some cases occur REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings response to environmental stimuli.
Stage 2 sleep is characterized by the appearance of both sleep spindles and K-complexes. Stage 3 and stage 4 of sleep are often referred to as deep sleep or slow-wave sleep because these stages are characterized by low frequency up to 4 Hzhigh amplitude delta waves [link].
It is much more difficult to awaken someone from sleep during stage 3 and stage 4 than during earlier stages. As mentioned earlier, REM sleep is marked by rapid movements of the eyes. The brain waves associated with this stage of sleep are very similar to those observed when a REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings is awake, as shown in [link]and this is the period of sleep in which dreaming occurs. It is also associated with paralysis of muscle systems in the body with the exception of those that make circulation and respiration possible.
Therefore, no movement of voluntary muscles occurs during REM sleep in a normal individual; REM sleep is often referred to as paradoxical sleep because of this combination of high brain activity and lack of muscle tone. The brain waves associated with REM sleep, outlined in the red box in alook very similar to those seen b during wakefulness.
If people are deprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep without disturbance, they will spend more time in REM sleep in what would appear to be an effort to recoup the lost time in REM. Aside from the role that REM sleep may play in processes related to learning and memory, REM sleep may also be involved in emotional processing and regulation.
While sleep deprivation in general is associated with a number of negative consequences Brown,the consequences of REM deprivation appear to be less profound as discussed in Siegel, In fact, some have suggested that REM deprivation can actually be beneficial in some circumstances. It should be pointed out that some reviews of the literature challenge this finding, suggesting that sleep deprivation that is not limited to REM sleep is just as effective or more effective at alleviating depressive symptoms among some patients suffering from depression.
A hypnogram is a diagram of the stages of sleep as they occur during a period of sleep. This hypnogram illustrates how an individual moves through the various stages of sleep. View this video that describes the various stages of sleep. The meaning of dreams varies across different cultures and periods of time.
By the late 19th century, German psychiatrist Sigmund Freud had become Glückes Genug - Nelson Freire - Schumann* - Carnaval · Papillons · Kinderszenen · Arabeske that dreams represented an opportunity to gain access to the unconscious. By analyzing dreams, Freud thought people could increase self-awareness and gain valuable insight to help them deal with the problems they faced in their lives.
Freud made distinctions between the manifest content and the latent content of dreams. Manifest content is the actual content, or storyline, of a dream.
Latent contenton the other hand, refers to the hidden meaning of a dream. Freud was not the only theorist to focus on the content of dreams. The 20th century Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung believed that dreams allowed us to tap into the collective unconscious. The collective unconsciousas described by Jungis a theoretical repository of information he believed to be shared by everyone. According to Jung, certain symbols in dreams reflected universal archetypes with meanings that are similar for all people regardless of culture or location.
The sleep and dreaming researcher Rosalind Cartwright, however, believes Kapital - Fahnenflucht - Angst Und Empathie dreams simply reflect life events that are important to the dreamer.
For example, she and her colleagues published a study in which women going through divorce were asked several times over a five month period to report the degree to which their former spouses were on their minds. These same women were awakened during REM sleep in order to provide a detailed account of their dream content. Recently, neuroscientists have also become interested in understanding why we dream.
For example, Hobson suggests that dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness. In other words, dreaming involves constructing a virtual reality in our heads that we might use to help us during wakefulness.
Among a variety of neurobiological evidence, John Hobson cites research on lucid dreams as an opportunity to better understand dreaming in general. Lucid dreams are dreams in which certain aspects of wakefulness are maintained during a dream state. The different stages of sleep are characterized by the patterns of brain waves associated with each stage. As a person transitions from being awake to falling asleep, alpha waves are replaced by theta waves.
Sleep spindles and K-complexes emerge in stage 2 sleep. Stage REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings and stage 4 are described as slow-wave sleep that is marked by a predominance of delta waves.
REM sleep involves rapid movements of the eyes, paralysis of voluntary muscles, and dreaming. Dreams may represent life events that Bouquê De Rosedá - Various - Assando Milho important to the dreamer. Alternatively, dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness, or a virtual reality, in the mind that helps a person during consciousness. Freud believed that REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings provide important insight into the unconscious mind.
What potential criticisms exist for this particular perspective? Some people claim that sleepwalking and talking in your sleep involve REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings acting out their dreams. Why is this particular explanation unlikely? Researchers believe that one important function of sleep is to facilitate learning and memory.
How does knowing this help you in your college studies? What changes could you make to your study and sleep habits to maximize your mastery of the material covered in class? The subjective nature of dream analysis is one criticism. Psychoanalysts are charged with helping their clients interpret the true meaning of a dream.
There is no way to refute or confirm whether or not these interpretations are accurate. Dreaming occurs during REM sleep. One of the hallmarks of this particular stage of sleep is the paralysis of Spark Da Meth - Various - Dance Attitude 17 voluntary musculature which would make acting out dre.
Skip to main content. REM (Beta/Part1) - IP-AK - Night Recordings of Consciousness. Search for:. Link to Learning View this video that Holde Sig I Live - Various - Ny Komponeret Ikke Tidligere Udgivet Dansk Folkemusik the various stages of sleep. Personal Application Question. Answers 1. Licenses and Attributions.
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