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The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Palaiologos dynasty in the period between andfrom the restoration of Byzantine rule to Constantinople by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos following its recapture from the Latin Empirefounded after the Fourth Crusadeup to the Fall of Constantinople to the Nur Geträumt - Nena - Nena Empire.
Together with the preceding Nicaean Empire and the contemporary Frankokratiathis period is known as the late Byzantine Empire. With a decreasing source of food and manpower, the Palaiologoi were forced to fight on several fronts, most of them being Christian states: the Second Bulgarian Empirethe Serbian Empirethe remnants of the Latin Empire and even the Knights Hospitaller.
The loss of land in the east to the Turks and in the west to the Bulgarians was complemented by two disastrous civil wars, the Black Death and the earthquake at Gallipoliwhose destruction and evacuation allowed the Turks to occupy it.
Bythe Byzantine Empire consisted of the capital Constantinople and a few other isolated exclaves, which only nominally recognized the Emperor as their lord. Nonetheless, Byzantine diplomacy coupled with the adroit exploitation of internal divisions and external threats among their enemies, and above all the invasion of Anatolia by Timurallowed Byzantium to survive until The last remnants of the Byzantine Empire, the Despotate of the Morea and the Empire of Trebizondfell shortly afterwards.
However, the Palaiologan period witnessed a renewed flourishing in art and the letters, in what has been called the "Palaiologian Renaissance". The migration of Byzantine scholars to the West also helped to spark the Italian Renaissance.
Following the Fourth Crusadethe Byzantine Empire had fractured into the Greek successor-states of NicaeaEpirus and Trebizond, with a multitude of Frankish and Latin possessions occupying the remainder, nominally subject to the Latin Emperors at Constantinople. In addition, the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire allowed the Bulgariansthe Serbs and the various Turcoman emirates of Anatolia to make gains. Although Epirus was initially the strongest of the three Greek states, the Nicaeans were the ones who succeeded in taking back the city of Constantinople from the Latin Empire.
The Nicaean Empire was successful in holding its own against its Latin and Seljuk opponents. At the Battle of Meander Valleya Turkic force was repelled  and an earlier assault on Nicaea led to the death of the Seljuk Sultan. In the west, the Latins were unable to expand into Anatolia; consolidating Thrace against Bulgaria was a challenge that kept the Latins occupied for the duration of the Latin Empire. Palaiologos was a leading noble of military standing and the main figure of the regency of John IV, who had used The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - role to propel himself to the throne, and set the stage for To Shine - Various - The Deep End becoming sole Emperor of the restored Byzantine Empire.
Inwhile the bulk of the Latin Empire's military forces were absent from Constantinople, the Byzantine General Alexios Strategopoulos used the opportunity to seize the city with troops. ThraceMacedonia and Thessalonica had already been taken by Nicaea in The Fourth Crusade and their successors, the Latin Empire, had done much to reduce Byzantium's finest city to an underpopulated wreck.
The Kontoskalion harbour and the walls of Constantinople were all strengthened against a possible new expedition by the Latin West. Many hospitals, hospices, markets, baths, streets and churches were built, some with private patronage.
Even a new Mosque was built to compensate for the one burnt during the Fourth Crusade. Both had common enemies; Latin aggression, and later on, the Ottoman Turks. The Sultanate of Rum was in chaos and decentralized ever since the Mongol invasions in ca.
The Greek Church was excommunicated, and Charles was given renewed papal support for the invasion of Constantinople. For the remainder of his life, Michael campaigned to drive the Latins out of Greece and the Balkans, and secure his position versus the Bulgarians.
He was largely successful, regaining several islands in the Aegean, and establishing a foothold in the Peloponnese, that would grow to become the Despotate of the Morea. The downside however was that Michael's efforts in the West absorbed most of the Empire's manpower and resources, and neglected the Asian provinces, where a new and fateful threat was rising: the beylik of Osman Iwho by had captured Sogut. Nevertheless, the border was kept relatively secure, and no significant losses occurred in Asia Minor during Michael's reign.
Michael VIII's foreign policy relied heavily on diplomacy;  nevertheless, his construction projects and military campaigns against the remaining Latins were extensive as well as expensive; the Nicaean army was modeled around the Komnenian army, and while it was not as effective, it was just as burdensome on the treasury. The result was that heavy taxes were levied on the peasantry,  something Lart Ment - Lobo - Stress Culture the Ottomans would later use to their advantage, winning over these poverty-stricken peasants with promises of lower taxes.
The Second Council of Lyons and the ostensible union of the two Churches did little to avert Catholic aggression, while at the same time the Orthodox population, led by large parts of the priesthood, denounced Michael VIII as a traitor. Michael VIII was a very energetic, ambitious and capable emperor who had enlarged and preserved the Empire Sorry - Nody & Phyro - The Footprint had once again made Byzantium a power to be reckoned with in the region.
His army, however, was still small, and diplomacy was relied upon more than ever. An extortionate tax system supported his ambitious and successful foreign policies of expansion, as well as his numerous bribes and gifts to various potentates.
He had put Byzantium on the road of recovery, but his achievements were still perilously fragile, as events would soon show. Andronikos II was tied down with events in the West and the East.
Byzantine counter-attacks failed to stop these, and as a result Andronikos was forced to resort to diplomacy, marrying his 5-year-old daughter to the Serbian King  and ceding a number of forts from Ohrid to Stip to Strumica The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - a "dowry".
Nonetheless, the Serbs continued their expansion. Unlike his father, Andronikos II recognized the gravity of the situation in Asia Minor,  and tried to drive out the Turks, utilizing a variety of methods. His first action was to move his court to Asia Minor, where he could better oversee the construction of fortifications and raise troop morale.
Unfortunately Byzantium was robbed of his services when he staged an unsuccessful coup, leading to his blinding. Originating from Cataloniathese hardy mercenaries were used to skirmishing against the Moors in Spain and now, for an extraordinarily high price, they drove the Turks back in Asia Minor. After this, Andronikos turned to diplomacy, asking the Ilkhanids of Persia to send troops to attack the Turks, but negotiations for such an alliance failed.
But he also ordered drastic reductions in the military, and effectively disbanded the navy,  which his father had worked hard to build up. As a result, tax reductions throughout the Empire were possible,  earning him greater popularity while seriously undermining Byzantium's abilities to deal The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - its opponents.
He debased the hyperpyron currency  and heavily taxed the military elite of the pronoiarioithereby further reducing Byzantium's military capability. While these solved some problems that Michael VIII had left for his son, it unraveled his father's attempts at restoring the power of the Slowdown - Oltrezona - Mosaico Empire; Superpaasto - Sakke* & Mato* - Tohtori Pöhön Aerobix! Michael VIII had attempted to deal with problems outside the Empire, Andronikos aimed to solve the internal problems resulting from his father's reign.
Andronikos II's policies were not successful in dealing with Byzantium's external problems; however, it would be threats from within the Empire that led to his abdication — in Andronikos III, the young in his twenties grandson of Andronikos II was disinherited by the Emperor.
Andronikos III did not take his disinheritance lightly — organizing an armed opposition, he succeeded in drawing support with promises of generous tax cuts, even beyond those enacted by Andronikos II. Andronikos II attempted to solve Byzantium's internal problems more than his father had.
The solutions he chose however had severe repercussions. They undermined the military and financial basis of the state, and the disasters suffered by his foreign policy failures further worsened the situation. Dissatisfaction from his failure, his old age and a "reckless grandson" The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - in his abdication.
The rule of Andronikos III is characterized as the last genuine attempt to restore Byzantine fortunes. His attempts came close to fruition, but the many hostile neighbors of Byzantium eventually took their toll on an Empire in decline. His first concern was that of Asia Minor. Nicaea, until the capital of The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - Empire, was under siege by Ottoman Turks.
In the summer Falling In Hate - Five Finger Death Punch - War Is The AnswerAndronikos III launched a relief attempt which culminated in a defeat at the Battle of Pelekanon on June 10,  and inthe city fell.
Not wishing to see Nicomedia or the other few remaining forts in Asia Minor suffer the same fate, Andronikos III sought to pay off the Ottomans with tribute — the The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist - did not stop at this and seized Nicomedia as well in Despite this, Andronikos III scored a few successes in the Aegean: inChios was recovered,  and inAndronikos arranged an alliance involving financial indemnities with the Turkic Emir Bahud-din UmurBey of Aydinand was able to recover Lesbos and Phocaea from the Latins.
In Europe, Andronikos III had mixed results; Thessaly returned to Imperial rule inbut Serbia once again began expanding southwards: led by the Deadhouse - Katatonia - Discouraged Ones renegade Syrgiannes PalaiologosSerbian forces took five key forts from Byzantium in and forced it to recognize the new borders.
In addition, Andronikos faced a further reversal when leading his army at Rousokastron where he was defeated by the Bulgarians under their leader Ivan Alexander. Nevertheless, Andronikos was able to bring back Epirus into the fold in through the use of diplomacy. Unfortunately for the newly expanded Byzantium, Stephen Dusan ruling Serbia from decided to take these lands as well from Byzantium. Although ultimately unsuccessful, the reign of Andronikos III was one of the last bright spots in Byzantine history, as the Empire's position was becoming increasingly precarious.
Andronikos was able to score some successes in his life as he campaigned vigorously against the Genoese with success and reestablished some control over Epirus and Thessaly. Throughout his reign, he was also able to work with competent administrators such as John Kantakouzenos who, along with many of the nobles supported Andronikos during the civil war with Andronikos II, However, numerous reversals against Byzantium's enemies such as Serbia and the rising Ottomans at battles such as Pelekanon further drained the power Byzantium had in comparison to its neighbors.
This would be a situation that would not be helped by his sudden death in the s which resulted in a civil war between the regency of John V a coalition of Anna of Savoy, Alexios Apokaukos and the patriarch of Constantinople, John XIV and the nobility who promoted John Kantakouzenos as emperor. The Byzantine Empire entered into a new era of decay in The Empire was ravaged by multiple serious disasters  — alongside wars and civil wars, renewed epidemics of bubonic plague swept through its diminished lands.
The first outbreak occurred inand between the s and s, eight further outbreaks of plague are recorded. Cities were full of social unrest between the corrupt wealthy who had been exploiting the tax system for their own benefit and the countless landless peasants burdened by the demands of the government.
There were numerous earthquakes, destroying Byzantium's infrastructure — the fortress of Gallipoli was destroyed in by such an earthquake  and the Ottoman Turks lost no time in taking it and establishing a bridgehead in Europe. Meanwhile, the Serbs continued pressing south, removing any nominal Imperial control in The Wall Of Life - Kostas Panagiotou / Gallileous / Wijlen Wij / Dissolving Of Prodigy / Pantheist . The Empire shrunk in size and when the civil war ended, Byzantium would be a petty city state, hanging on to life through the respites of her foes, and soon to-be protectors.
The Patriarch, aided by the ambitious Alexios Apokaukossparked the civil conflict when he convinced the Empress that John V's rule was threatened by the ambitions of Kantakouzenos. In Septemberwhile Kantakouzenos was in Thrace, Kalekas declared himself as regent and launched a vicious attack on Kantakouzenos, his supporters and family. Whether or not Kantakouzenos wished to be Emperor is not known, but the provocative actions of the Patriarch forced Kantakouzenos to fight to retain his power and started the civil war.
There were not nearly enough troops to defend Byzantium's borders at the time and there certainly was not enough for the two factions to split; consequently, foreigner mercenaries were brought in. The Regency of John V relied on Turkish mercenaries as well. However, Kantakouzenos began to draw support from the Ottoman Sultan Orhan, who wed Kantakouzenos' daughter in ByKantakouzenos had triumphed and entered Constantinople.
However, in his hour of victory, he came to an accord with Anna and her son, John V: John V now 15 years of age and Kantakouzenos would rule as co-emperors, though John V would be the junior in this relationship. Kantakouzenos had a son, Matthew Kantakouzenos — and any hope of keeping peace between John V and Matthew became more remote as the two grew older and more independent.
John V wed Kantakouzenos' daughter, thus becoming his son in law,  in a move designed to bind the two families, but it was destined to fail. InKantakouzenos was still hopeful that peace would be maintained, but in that year, John V launched a military attack on Matthew,  thereby re-igniting the civil war.
John V was demoted and exiled to the island of Tenedosone of the few islands in the Aegean still under Byzantine control, while Kantakouzenos made his son Matthew co-emperor. John V would not give up so easy however, and in Ottoman troops began crossing over into Thrace in his support. The citizens of Constantinople became gripped with fear and in November of that same year, John V launched a successful coup with Genoan aid. Kantakouzenos now abdicated and retired to a monastery, where he would write his memoirs and thoughts until his death in Matthew Kantakouzenos, no doubt disappointed with his father's failure, continued to resist John V.
Since the Ottoman Sultan Orhan was his brother-in-law, he was able to Sun Is Shining - Bob Marley & The Wailers - Rebel Revolution (The Extended Mixes) troops from him, but had barely begun his campaign when he was captured in the summer of He was forced to renounce his claims in and exiled to the Morea sometime between and though other sources indicate a possible date.
At 25 years, John V had managed to establish himself firmly as ruler of the Empire, at the cost of bleeding out all its resources. The lands ravaged and depopulated by the civil war were filled up by arriving Turks who colonised the land through a mixture of conquest and trade.
Now the population under its control was limited to the few remaining cities in Byzantine possession, namely Thessalonica and Constantinople and the surrounding countryside, and the Despotate of the Morea.
The immigration of Turks would be decisive in the survival of the Empire as it gave her most dire enemy, the Ottomans, a new power base, not in Asia but now in Europe. John V Palaiologos now had to face the serious threat the Ottomans posed to Byzantium.
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