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Acute radiation syndrome ARSalso known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoningis a collection of health effects due to exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. Acute radiation syndrome involves a total dose of greater than 0. Treatment of acute radiation syndrome is generally supportive care. ARS is generally rare. These syndromes may or may not be preceded by a prodrome. Each syndrome requires that the tissue showing the syndrome itself be exposed.
The gastrointestinal syndrome is not seen if the stomach and intestines are not exposed to radiation. Some areas affected are:. Early symptoms of ARS typically includes nausea and vomitingheadachesfatigue, feverand a short period of skin reddening.
These symptoms are common to many illnesses, and may not, by themselves, indicate acute radiation sickness. Cutaneous radiation syndrome CRS refers to the skin symptoms of radiation exposure. Then, a latent phase may occur and last from a few days up to several weeks, when intense reddening, blisteringand ulceration of the irradiated site is visible. In most cases, healing occurs by regenerative means; however, very large skin doses can cause permanent hair loss, damaged sebaceous and sweat glandsatrophyfibrosis mostly keloidsdecreased or increased skin pigmentation, and ulceration or necrosis of the exposed tissue.
Alpha and beta radiation have low penetrating power and are unlikely to affect vital internal organs from outside the body. Any type of ionizing radiation can cause burns, but alpha and beta radiation can only do so if radioactive contamination or nuclear fallout is deposited on the individual's skin or clothing. Gamma and neutron radiation can travel much further distances and penetrate the body easily, so whole-body irradiation generally causes ARS before skin effects are evident.
Local gamma irradiation can cause skin effects without any sickness. In the early twentieth century, radiographers would commonly calibrate their machines by irradiating their own hands and measuring the time to onset of erythema. Accidental exposure may be the result of a criticality or radiotherapy accident. There have been numerous criticality accidents dating back to atomic testing during World War II, while computer-controlled radiation therapy machines such as Therac played a major part in radiotherapy accidents.
The latter of the two is caused by the failure of equipment software used to monitor the radiational dose given. Human error has played a large part in accidental exposure incidents which include some of the criticality accidents, and larger scale events such as the Chernobyl disaster.
Other events have to do with orphan sources in which radioactive material is unknowingly kept, sold, or stolen. Exposure may also come from routine spaceflight and solar flares that result in radiation effects on earth in the form of solar storms. During spaceflight astronauts are exposed to both galactic cosmic radiation GCR and solar particle event SPE radiation.
The exposure particularly occurs during flights beyond low Earth orbit LEO. Evidence indicates past SPE radiation levels that would have been lethal for unprotected astronauts. Intentional exposure is controversial as it involves the use of nuclear weaponshuman experimentsor is given to a victim in an act of murder.
The intentional atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted in tens of thousands of casualties, the survivors of these bombings are known today as Hibakusha. Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light, to which the atmosphere is largely transparent.
This event is also known as "Flash", where radiant heat and light are bombarded into any given victim's exposed skin causing radiation burns.
Scientific testing on humans done without consent has been prohibited since in the United States. There is Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy a requirement for patients to give informed consent, and to be notified if experiments were classified. Criminal activity has involved murder, and attempted murder carried out through abrupt victim contact with a radioactive substance such as polonium or plutonium.
The most commonly used predictor of acute radiation symptoms is the whole-body absorbed dose. Several related quantities, such as the Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy doseeffective doseand committed doseare used to gauge long-term stochastic biological effects such as cancer incidence, but they are not designed to evaluate acute radiation syndrome.
In most of the acute exposure scenarios that lead to radiation sickness, the bulk of the radiation is external whole-body gamma, in which case the absorbed, equivalent and effective doses are all equal. There are exceptions, such as the Therac accidents and the Cecil Kelley criticality accidentwhere the absorbed doses Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy Gy or rad are the only useful quantities, because of the targeted nature of the exposure to the body.
The dose to the targeted tissue mass must be averaged over the entire body mass, most Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy which receives negligible radiation, to arrive at a whole-body absorbed dose that can be compared to the table above.
Exposure to high doses of radiation can cause DNA damage, later creating serious and even lethal chromosomal aberrations if left unrepaired. Ionizing radiation can produce reactive oxygen speciesand does direct damage to cells by causing localized ionization events.
The DNA organization at the level of histonesnucleosomes, and chromatin also affects its susceptibility to radiation damage. Somatic mutations cannot be Immense/Blooms - Lullabies Under A Grey Sky - Beneath Us/If Ever (File, Album) down from parent to offspring, but these mutations can propagate in cell lines within an organism.
Radiation damage can also cause chromosome and chromatid aberrations, and their effect depends on what stage of the mitotic cycle the cell is currently in when the irradiation occurs. If the cell is in interphase, while it is still a single strand of chromatin, the damage will be replicated during the S1 phase Lot Oew Eige Vraa Toch Niet Alleen - De Strangers - De Strangers - Volume 2 cell cycleand there will be a break on both chromosome arms.
Then the damage will be apparent in both daughter cells. If the irradiation occurs after replication, only one arm will bear the damage. This damage will only be apparent in one daughter cell. A damaged chromosome may cyclize, binding to another chromosome, or to itself. Diagnosis is typically made based on a history of significant radiation exposure and suitable clinical findings. The longer that One Note Samba - The Modern Jazz Quartet Guest Star Laurindo Almeida - Concierto De Aranjuez are subjected to radiation the larger the dose will be.
Under Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy conditions, an additional 1-R dose is of little concern. For instance, the recovery of a radioactive source should be done as quickly as possible.
Matter attenuates radiation in most cases, so placing any mass e. This is not always the case, however; care should be taken when constructing shielding for a specific purpose. For example, although high atomic number materials are very effective in shielding photonsusing them to shield beta particles may cause higher radiation exposure due to the Alright - Problem Kids - Kidsound Sampler Vol 1 of bremsstrahlung x-rays, and hence low atomic number materials are recommended.
Also, using material with a high neutron activation cross section to shield neutrons will result in the shielding material itself becoming radioactive and hence more dangerous than if it were not present. There are many types of shielding strategies that can be used to reduce the effects of radiation exposure. Internal contamination protective equipment such as Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy are used to prevent internal deposition as a result of inhalation and ingestion of radioactive material.
Dermal protective equipment, which protects against external contamination, provides shielding to prevent radioactive material from being deposited on external structures. Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy leaves anyone exposed to penetrating gamma rays at high risk of Acute Radiation Syndrome. Naturally, shielding the entire body from high energy gamma radiation is optimal, but the required mass to provide adequate attenuation makes functional movement nearly impossible.
In the event of a radiation catastrophe, medical and security personnel need mobile protection equipment in order to safely assist in containment, evacuation, and many other necessary public safety objectives. Research has been done exploring the feasibility of partial body shielding, a radiation protection strategy that provides adequate attenuation to only the most radio-sensitive organs and tissues inside the body.
Irreversible stem cell damage in the bone marrow is the first life-threatening effect of intense radiation exposure and therefore one of the most important bodily elements to protect. Due to the regenerative property of hematopoietic stem cellsit is only necessary to protect enough bone marrow to repopulate the exposed areas of the body with the shielded supply.
One example of such equipment is the gammaa radiation protection belt that applies selective shielding to protect the bone marrow stored in the pelvic area as well as other radio sensitive organs in the abdominal region without hindering functional mobility. More information on bone marrow shielding can be found in the "Health Physics Radiation Safety Journal".
Where radioactive contamination is present, a gas maskdust mask, or good hygiene practices may offer protection, depending on the nature of the contaminant.
Potassium iodide KI tablets can reduce the risk of cancer in some situations due to slower uptake of ambient radioiodine. Although this does not protect any organ other than the thyroid gland, their effectiveness is still highly dependent on the time of ingestion, which would protect the gland for the duration of a twenty-four-hour period.
They do not prevent acute radiation syndrome as they provide no shielding from other environmental radionuclides. If an intentional dose is broken up into a number of smaller doses, with time allowed for recovery between irradiations, the same total dose causes less cell death. Even without interruptions, a reduction in dose rate below 0.
The human body contains many types of cells and a human can be killed by the loss of a single type of cells in a vital organ. The loss of cells forming blood cells bone marrow and the cells in the digestive system microvilliwhich form part of the wall of the intestines is fatal. Treatment usually involves supportive care with possible symptomatic measures employed. The former involves the possible use of antibioticsblood productscolony stimulating factorsand stem cell transplant.
There is a direct relationship between the degree of the neutropenia that emerges after exposure to radiation and the increased risk of developing infection. Since there are no controlled studies of therapeutic intervention in humans, most of the current recommendations are based on animal research.
The treatment of established or suspected infection following exposure to radiation characterized by neutropenia and fever is similar to the one used for other febrile neutropenic patients. However, important differences between the two conditions exist. Individuals that develop neutropenia after exposure to radiation are also susceptible to irradiation damage in other tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and central nervous system.
These patients may require therapeutic interventions not needed in other types of neutropenic patients. The response of irradiated animals to antimicrobial therapy can be unpredictable, as was evident in experimental studies where metronidazole  and pefloxacin  therapies were detrimental. Antimicrobials that reduce the number of the strict anaerobic component of the gut flora i. An empirical regimen of antimicrobials should be chosen based on the pattern of bacterial susceptibility and nosocomial infections in the affected area and medical center and the degree of neutropenia.
Broad-spectrum empirical therapy see below for choices with high doses of one or more antibiotics Hey Dirty - Loonies - Crown Of Creation be initiated at the onset of fever.
These antimicrobials Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy be directed at the eradication of Gram-negative aerobic bacilli i. Because aerobic and facultative Gram-positive bacteria mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci cause sepsis in about a quarter of the victims, coverage for these organisms may also be needed.
A standardized management plan for people with neutropenia and fever should be devised. Empirical regimens contain antibiotics broadly active against Gram-negative aerobic bacteria quinolones : i. The prognosis for ARS is dependent on the Jenůfa - Act 3 Scenes 11 And 12 - Do Not Kneel, Dear Mother!.They Have Gone! Now You Go!
- Various dose, with anything above 8 Gy being almost always lethal even Burnt By Radiation - Cathexia - Misanthropy medical care. According to the linear no-threshold modelany exposure to ionizing radiation, even at doses too low to produce any symptoms of radiation sickness, can induce the cancer due to cellular and genetic damage.
The probability of developing cancer is a linear function with respect to the effective radiation dose. Radiation cancer may occur following ionizing radiation exposure following a latent period averaging 20 to 40 years.
He published his observations concerning the burns that developed that eventually healed, and misattributed them to ozone. Walsh first established the symptoms of radiation sickness in Ingestion of radioactive materials Hoch Auf Dem Gelben Wagen - Werner Böhm - Das Wird ne Party! many radiation-induced cancers in the s, but no one was exposed to high enough doses at high enough rates to bring on acute radiation syndrome.
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